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The high persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these dioxins and furans in the environment is well-established (Sinkkonen and Paasivirta 2000; Van den Berg et al. Furthermore, triclosan undergoes conversion to 2,8-dibenzodichloro--dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in water when exposed to natural sunlight (Aranami and Readman 2007; Latch et al. EPA 2001) that is also recognized by the State of California as a developmental toxicant [State of California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) 2017]. Phytoaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban has been observed in certain vegetable crops grown in biosolids-amended soils. One study calculated a terminal plasma half-life of 21h for triclosan (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Blood-borne triclosan and triclocarban can cross the placenta, and triclosan and its metabolites have been detected in umbilical cord blood at birth (Allmyr et al. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their metabolites have also been detected in human milk samples (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol –91, PMID: 23146048, 10.1111/all.12058. Water Res 91–3896, PMID: 12909107, 10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 0–572, PMID: 19822703, 10.1128/AAC.00615-09. Environ Toxicol Chem 83–2492, PMID: 12389930, 10.1002/etc.5620211130. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an urban estuary. Environ Sci Technol 09–3115, PMID: 21381656, 10.1021/es103650m.

In biosolids-amended soils, triclocarban and triclosan can persist for extended periods of time while exhibiting very slow or no measurable degradation (Langdon et al. 2008; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2012]. 2017), raising concerns about prenatal exposure to the developing fetus. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54806478e4b0dc44e1698e88/t/5488541fe4b03c0a9b8ee09b/1418220575693/Ntl Biosolids Report-20July07[accessed 17 June 2016]. Bertelsen RJ, Longnecker MP, Løvik M, Calafat AM, Carlsen KH, London SJ, et al. Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Triclosan in a sewage treatment process – Balances and monitoring data. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:9–17, PMID: 15959704, 10.1007/s00244-004-0155-4. Environ Toxicol Chem 55–2563, PMID: 19908930, 0730-7268/09. Chemosphere 38–1243, PMID: 21652055, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Queckenberg C, Meins J, Wachall B, Doroshyenko O, Tomalik-Scharte D, Bastian B, et al. Absorption, pharmacokinetics, and safety of triclosan after dermal administration. An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater treatment plants in the United States. https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_023[accessed 21 June 2016]. Aquat Toxicol 18–454, PMID: 21872556, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Schebb NH, Inceoglu B, Ahn KC, Morisseau C, Gee SJ, Hammock BD. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

of Physics and Astronomy and Environmental Studies Program, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, USA Anthony Tweedale, MSc, Founder, R. Environ Health Perspect 103–1210, PMID: 18795164, 10.1289/ehp.11200. Am J Public Health 72–1381, PMID: 18556606, 10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610. Aiello AE, Marshall B, Levy SB, Della-Latta P, Larson E. Relationship between triclosan and susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from hands in the community. The influence of age and gender on triclosan concentrations in Australian human blood serum. Triclosan: Environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils. Risk assessment of triclosan [Irgasan®] in human breast milk. uri=CELEX:32016D0110&from=EN [accessed 23 January 2017]. Aquat Toxicol 1–59, PMID: 26440146, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Lassen TH, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, et al. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Photochemical conversion of triclosan to 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aqueous solution. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environ Sci Technol 7–695, PMID: 16509304, 10.1021/es051380x. Reprod Toxicol –77, PMID: 23261820, 10.1016/j.reprotox.20. Macherius A, Eggen T, Lorenz W, Moeder M, Ondruschka J, Reemtsma T. Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment. Ye X, Zhou X, Furr J, Ahn KC, Hammock BD, Gray EL, et al. Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. Zorrilla LM, Gibson EK, Jeffay SC, Crofton KM, Setzer WR, Cooper RL, et al. The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male Wistar rats. works with Science and Environmental Health Network and has no actual or potential competing financial interests to declare. 2009), and it has also been detected at high levels in fish (Adolfsson-Erici et al. In 2007, an estimated 85% of the total volume of triclosan in the EU was used in personal care and cosmetic products (SCCS 2010). According to the FDA, which is responsible for regulation of foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, and similar products, there is no evidence that antibacterial soaps are more effective than nonantibacterial soap and water (FDA 2016). Through land application of biosolids, antimicrobials can also end up in livestock feed and in crops destined for human consumption (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Prosser et al. Persisting fractions of triclosan and triclocarban that do not partition into the sludge are discharged to surface waters via effluent, where they can reach levels of thousands of nanograms per liter (Bester 2005; Buth et al. In 1998, the worldwide annual production of triclosan was approximately 1,500 tons, with a majority produced in Europe (350 tons) and the United States (450 tons) (Dhillon et al. In 2006, an estimated 450 tons of triclosan was used within the European Union (EU) [Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee concluded, “No evidence is available to suggest that use of [antimicrobial-impregnated articles and consumer items bearing antimicrobial labeling] will make consumers and patients healthier or prevent disease” (CDC 2003).

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